Biostratigraphy of the Upper Devonian Khoshyeilagh Formation in NE Iran based on conodonts and other faunas

Authors

  • Fatemeh Jafarbeigloo Department of Earth Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mahmoudreza Majidifard Research Institute for Earth Science, Geological Survey of Iran, Meraj Blvd, Azadi Sq, P.O. Box 13185-1494, Tehran, Iran.
  • Bahaeddin Hamdi Research Institute for Earth Science, Geological Survey of Iran, Meraj Blvd, Azadi Sq, P.O. Box 13185-1494, Tehran, Iran.
  • Afshin Asghari National Iranian Oil Company, Seoul St., Sheikh Bahaei Sq, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mehran Arian Department of Earth Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2021.1.02

Abstract

The Khoshyeilagh Formation located in the northeast of Iran yielded seven conodont species and sub-species and 19 macro- and microfossil taxa that allow recognition of two conodont biozones and one biozone based on calcareous microfossils. The latest Frasnian age (the Upper rhenana to linguiformis zones) is attributed to the topmost strata with Icriodus alternatus. Its replacement with I. cornutus indicates the Famennian (Lower triangularis to Lower crepida zones) corresponding to the Umbellina Zone. The fossil assemblages identified in the Khoshyeilagh Formation represent a shallow marine environment with a tropical climate at the time of deposition. The fossil species from the Khoshyeilagh Formation and the sedimentary basins in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Poland, and Russia reveal a close connection between the Iranian plateau and the northern parts of Gondwana in the Late Devonian. The biofacies and lithofacies analyses show a sea level decline at the end of Frasnian, followed by a considerable sea level drop, as in other regions of the world. After a short time, in the Famennian, the deepening occurred in some parts of the area and the open marine facies (bioclast spicule wackestone-packstone) were deposited. This study is the first attempt to determine Frasnian-Famennian boundary based on conodont assemblages and other fossil species such as umbellulids, tentaculites, and ostracods. The distribution of these species is interpreted in sedimentological, stratigraphic, sequence stratigraphy, and the global eustatic context.

Keywords: biofacies, conodont, Frasnian-Famennian boundary, Late Devonian, NE Iran.

RESUMO – A Formação Khoshyeilagh, localizada no nordeste do Irã, produziu sete espécies de conodontes e subespécies e 19 táxons de macro- e microfósseis, o que permite o reconhecimento de duas biozonas de conodontes e uma biozona baseada nos microfósseis calcáreos. A idade Frasniana mais superior (as zonas superiores rhenana a linguiformis) é atribuída ao estrato mais superior com Icriodus alternatus. A sua substituição por I. cornutus indica o Famenniano (zonas iniciais triangularis superior a crepida superior), correspondendo à Zona de Umbellina. Os fósseis identificados na Formação Khoshyeilagh representam um ambiente marinho raso, com um clima tropical, no momento de deposição. As espécies fósseis da Formação Khoshyeilagh e as bacias sedimentares na Argélia, Líbia, Marrocos, Polônia e Rússia revelam uma conexão íntima entre o platô iraniano e as partes norte do Gondwana no Neodevoniano. As biofácies e litofácies analisadas mostram um declínio do nível do mar no final do Frasniano, seguido por uma considerável queda do nível do mar, como em outras regiões do mundo. Após um curto tempo, no Famenniano, o aprofundamento ocorreu em algumas partes da área, e a fácies marinha aberta (bioclast spicule wackestone-packstone) foi depositada. Este estudo é a primeira tentativa de determinar o limite Frasniano-Famenniano com base em associações de conodontes e outras espécies fósseis, como umbellulídeos, tentaculites e ostracodes. A distribuição dessas espécies é interpretada nos contextos sedimentológico, estratigráfico, de estratigrafia de sequências e de eustasia global.

Palavras-chave: biofácies, conodonte, limite Frasniano-Famenniano, Neodevoniano, NE Irã.

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Published

2021-01-30

How to Cite

Jafarbeigloo, F., Majidifard, M., Hamdi, B., Asghari, A., & Arian, M. (2021). Biostratigraphy of the Upper Devonian Khoshyeilagh Formation in NE Iran based on conodonts and other faunas. Revista Brasileira De Paleontologia, 24(1), 21-36. https://doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2021.1.02