Diatomeas holocenas del delta del río Colorado, Argentina. Una aproximación paleoambiental a partir del estudio de “fragilarioides pequeñas”

Authors

  • Rocío Fayó Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, (IGCyC), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP)/ Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC), Funes 3350, Nivel 1, Mar del Plata (7600), Buenos Aires, ArgentinaInstituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), UNMdP/Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Rodríguez Peña 4046, Mar del Plata (7600), Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Marcela Alcira Espinosa Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, (IGCyC), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP)/ Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC), Funes 3350, Nivel 1, Mar del Plata (7600), Buenos Aires, ArgentinaInstituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), UNMdP/Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Rodríguez Peña 4046, Mar del Plata (7600), Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Federico Ignacio Isla Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, (IGCyC), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP)/ Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC), Funes 3350, Nivel 1, Mar del Plata (7600), Buenos Aires, ArgentinaInstituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), UNMdP/Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Rodríguez Peña 4046, Mar del Plata (7600), Buenos Aires, Argentina

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2020.3.05

Abstract

Holocene diatoms of the Colorado River Delta, Argentina. A paleoenvironmental approach from the study of “small fragilarioids”. Diatom assemblages of a sedimentary succession in the deltaic plain of the Colorado River (Argentina) were studied in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions of the delta in response to Holocene sea-level changes. A 191 cm depth core was extracted by vibracoring from Las Isletas (LI), located 22 km from the coast (39°43’5.7”S, 62°20’49.7”W). A cluster analysis – CONISS of 35 subsamples defined three diatom zones (DZ). The sedimentary succession is dominated by small fragilarioids, being Punctastriata glubokoensis Williams, Chudaev & Gololobova the most abundant species; the accompanying flora included fresh-brackish and allochthonous
marine-coastal taxa. At the base, subzone DZIA (191–163 cm, 7,315±64 14C yr BP) included sandy lithological units and presented abundant marine-coastal species. The overlying subzone DZIB (163–96 cm) has low abundance of allochthonous marine species. The uppermost zone, DZII (96 cm from the top) integrate the silt-sandy lithological units, and it was deposited ca. 2,218±29 14C yr BP. DZII lacked marine species. The LI sequence represents the infilling of a river-estuarine channel with tidal influence ca. 7,300 14C yr BP that gradually evolved into a fresh-brackish river channel, similar to the current river, ca. 2,200 14C yr BP. During the Middle Holocene transgression, the greatest marine influence would have transported coastal marine species upstream to the LI site; the increase of fluvial influence associated with the progradation of the delta lobe would have favored the ubiquity and persistence of the small fragilarioids in the fluvial-delta assemblages of the Colorado River during the last ca. 7,000 14C yr BP.


Keywords: Fragilariaceae, delta, sea level, Holocene, Patagonia.


As associações de diatomáceas, de uma sucessão sedimentar da planície deltaica do Rio Colorado (Argentina), foram estudadas com o objetivo de reconstruir as condições paleoambientais do delta, em resposta às flutuações do nível do mar no Holoceno. Um testemunho de 191 cm de profundidade foi extraído usando um vibracoring no sitio Las Isletas (LI), localizado a 22 km da costa atual (39°43’5,7”S, 62°20’49,7”O). A análise diatomológica de 35 sub-amostras permitiu definir três zonas de diatomáceas (DZ) por meio de uma análise de agrupamento – CONISS. O testemunho foi dominado por pequenos fragilarioides, sendo Punctastriata glubokoensis Williams, Chudaev & Gololobova a espécie mais abundante. A flora acompanhante apresentou espécies de água salobra-duciaquícolas e táxons marinho-costeiros alóctones. A subzona basal DZIA (191–163 cm, 7.315 ± 64 anos 14C AP) incluiu unidades litológicas arenosas e apresentou abundantes diatomáceas marinhas costeiras alóctone. A subzona sobrejacente (DZIB: 163–96 cm) exibiu poucos táxons marinhos. A zona DZII (96 cm no topo) integrou unidades litológicas de areia-siltosa, formadas ca. 2.218 ± 29 anos 14C AP. DZII e não apresentou espécies marinhas costeiras. A sequência LI representa o assoreamento de um canal fluvial-estuarino com influência de marés ca. 7.300 anos 14C AP que evoluiu gradualmente para um canal fluvial de águas salobra-dulciaquícolas, semelhante ao rio atual ca. 2.200 anos 14C AP. Durante a transgressão do Meso-holoceno, o aumento da influência marinha teria transportado espécies costeiras-marinhas a montante do sítio LI. O aumento da influência fluvial associada à progradação do lobo deltaico teria favorecido a onipresença e a persistência de pequenos fragilarioides nas associações fluvio-deltaica do Rio Colorado durante os últimos ca. 7.000 anos 14C AP.


Palavras-chave: Fragilariaceae, delta, nível do mar, Holoceno, Patagônia.

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Published

2020-10-30

How to Cite

Fayó, R., Espinosa, M. A., & Isla, F. I. (2020). Diatomeas holocenas del delta del río Colorado, Argentina. Una aproximación paleoambiental a partir del estudio de “fragilarioides pequeñas”. Revista Brasileira De Paleontologia, 23(3), 209-221. https://doi.org/10.4072/rbp.2020.3.05